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Bacterial ribosomes stall on polyproline stretches and require the elongation factor P (EF-P) to relieve the arrest. Yet it remains unclear why evolution has favored the development of EF-P rather than selecting against the occurrence of polyproline stretches in proteins. We have discovered that only a single polyproline stretch is invariant across all ...

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During protein synthesis, nascent polypeptide chains within the ribosomal tunnel can act in cis to induce ribosome stalling and regulate expression of downstream genes. The Staphylococcus aureus ErmCL leader peptide induces stalling in the presence of clinically important macrolide antibiotics, such as erythromycin, leading to the induction of the downstream ...

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Dosage compensation is a regulatory process that balances the expression of X-chromosomal genes between males (XY) and females (XX). In Drosophila, this requires non-coding RNAs and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) whose specific functions remain elusive. Here we show that the Drosophila RBP ​UNR promotes the targeting of the activating male-specific-lethal ...

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Endolysosomal organelles play a key role in trafficking, breakdown and receptor-mediated recycling of different macromolecules such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-​cholesterol, ​epithelial growth factor (​EGF) or ​transferrin. Here we examine the role of ​two-pore channel (TPC) 2, an endolysosomal cation channel, in these processes. Embryonic mouse ...

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The polymerization of amino acids into proteins occurs on ribosomes, with the rate influenced by the amino acids being polymerized. The imino acid proline is a poor donor and acceptor for peptide-bond formation, such that translational stalling occurs when three or more consecutive prolines (PPP) are encountered by the ribosome. In bacteria, stalling at PPP ...

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The cell establishes heritable patterns of active and silenced chromatin via interacting factors that set, remove, and read epigenetic marks. To understand how the underlying networks operate, we have dissected transcriptional silencing in pericentric heterochromatin (PCH) of mouse fibroblasts. We assembled a quantitative map for the abundance and ...

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Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is caused by loss of function mutations in the TRPML1 ion channel. We previously reported that tissue zinc levels in MLIV were abnormally elevated; however, the mechanism behind this pathologic accumulation remains unknown. Here, we identify transmembrane (TMEM)-163 protein, a putative zinc transporter, as a novel interacting ...

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Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder often characterized by severe neurodevelopmental abnormalities and neuro-retinal degeneration. Mutations in the ​TRPML1 gene are causative for MLIV. We used lead optimization strategies to identify—and MLIV patient fibroblasts to test—small-molecule activators for their ...

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The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from ...

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Although selective binding of 53BP1 to dimethylated histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me2) at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is a necessary and pivotal determinant of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ)-directed repair, the enzymes that generate H4K20me2 at DSBs were unclear. Here, we determined that the PR-Set7 monomethyltransferase (H4K20me1) regulates de novo ...

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Selective ubiquitin-dependent autophagy plays a pivotal role in the elimination of protein aggregates, assemblies, or organelles and counteracts the cytotoxicity of proteins linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Following substrate ubiquitylation, the cargo is delivered to autophagosomes involving adaptors like human p62 that bind ubiquitin and the ...

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Das Exzellenzcluster „Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM)“ der LMU startet am 9. Juli gemeinsam mit dem Feodor-Lynen-Gymnasium in Planegg im Landkreis München ein Projekt in dem Forscher/innen Schülern/innen der Klassenstufe 8 wissenschaftliche Zusammenhänge anschaulich und spannend vermitteln um sie frühzeitig für die Natur und ihre ...

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Toxic DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) arise by ionizing irradiation and UV light, are particularly caused by endogenously produced reactive compounds such as formaldehyde, and also occur during compromised topoisomerase action. Although nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination contribute to cell survival upon DPCs, hardly anything is known about ...

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Certain environmental parameters are accessible to cells only indirectly and require an encoding step for cells to retrieve the relevant information. A prominent example is the phenomenon of quorum sensing by microorganisms, where information about cell density is encoded by means of secreted signaling molecules. The mapping of cell density to signal ...

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Outer segments (OS) of rod photoreceptors are cellular compartments specialized in the conversion of light into electrical signals. This process relies on the light-triggered change in the intracellular levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which in turn controls the activity of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels in the rod OS plasma membrane. ...

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Although the role of noxious α-synuclein (α-SYN) in the degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and associated motor deficits of Parkinson’s disease is recognized, its impact on non-motor brain circuits and related symptoms remains elusive. Through combining in vivo two-photon imaging with time-coded labelling of neurons in the olfactory bulb of A30P ...

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Proteomes are characterized by large protein-abundance differences, cell-type- and time-dependent expression patterns and post-translational modifications, all of which carry biological information that is not accessible by genomics or transcriptomics. Here we present a mass-spectrometry-based draft of the human proteome and a public, high-performance, ...

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A complex network of regulatory pathways links transcription to cell growth and proliferation. Here we show that cellular quiescence alters chromatin structure by promoting trimethylation of histone H4 at lysine 20 (H4K20me3). In contrast to pericentric or telomeric regions, recruitment of the H4K20 methyltransferase Suv4-20h2 to rRNA genes and IAP elements ...

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Ten eleven translocation (Tet) enzymes oxidize the epigenetically important DNA base 5-methylcytosine (mC) stepwise to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxycytosine. It is currently unknown whether Tet-induced oxidation is limited to cytosine-derived nucleobases or whether other nucleobases are oxidized as well. We synthesized ...

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The primary dynamics of reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides at room temperature are studied at low excitation intensities and low excitation rates. Analysis based on singular value decomposition yields three time constants in the picosecond range (ca. 1.2 ps, 3.5 ps and 220 ps). The spectral and temporal signatures are fully consistent with the ...

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