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CIPSM wishing you and your family a wonderful holiday season and a healthy & peaceful New Year 2015!

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The male-specific lethal dosage compensation complex (MSL-DCC) selectively assembles on the X chromosome in Drosophila males and activates gene transcription by twofold through histone acetylation. An MSL recognition element (MRE) sequence motif nucleates the initial MSL association, but how it is recognized remains unknown. Here, we identified the CXC ...

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Visualizing neuronal mitochondria in a living, intact mammalian organism is a challenge that can be overcome in zebrafish larvae, which are highly accessible for optical imaging and genetic manipulation. Here, we detail an approach to visualize neuronal mitochondria in sensory Rohon–Beard axons, which allows quantitatively measuring mitochondrial shape, ...

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Fluorine-containing natural products are extremely rare. The recent report on the isolation and biological activity of the bacterial secondary metabolite 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-fluorophenyl)propionic acid was thus highly remarkable. The compound contained the first aromatic fluorine substituent known to date in any natural product. The promise to discover an ...

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In vitro, assembly of box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins (snoRNPs) involves the sequential recruitment of core proteins to snoRNAs. In vivo, however, assembly factors are required (NUFIP, BCD1, and the HSP90–R2TP complex), and it is unknown whether a similar sequential scheme applies. In this paper, we describe systematic quantitative stable isotope ...

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DOT1 enzymes are conserved methyltransferases that catalyse the methylation of lysine 79 on histone ​H3 (H3K79). Most eukaryotes contain one DOT1 enzyme, whereas African trypanosomes have two homologues, ​DOT1A and ​DOT1B, with different enzymatic activities. ​DOT1A mediates mono- and dimethylation of H3K76, the homologue of H3K79 in other organisms, whereas ...

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An astounding property of the nervous system is its cellular diversity. This diversity, which was initially realized by morphological and electrophysiological differences, is ultimately produced by variations in gene-expression programs. In most cases, these variations are determined by external cues. However, a growing number of neuronal types have been ...

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The human histone macroH2A.1.1 recruits activated PARP1 enzyme to chromatin through its poly(ADP-ribose)-binding macrodomain. New work shows that PARP1 and CBP can be displaced from chromatin in cancer cells that have lost macroH2A.1.1, thus leading to changes in histone H2B acetylation at cancer-relevant genes.

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Die LMU vereinbart bislang umfangreichsten Lizenzvertrag im Bereich der Proteinforschung: BASF kauft aussichtsreiche Patente für innovative Entwicklungen in der Biomedizin. Die LMU hat mit dem Unternehmen BASF SE einen Lizenzvertrag im Bereich neuer chemischer Methoden zur Modifizierung von Biomolekülen geschlossen, die am Exzellenzcluster Center for ...

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Vertebrate vision relies on two types of photoreceptors, rods and cones, which signal increments in light intensity with graded hyperpolarizations. Rods operate in the lower range of light intensities while cones operate at brighter intensities. The receptive fields of both photoreceptors exhibit antagonistic center-surround organization. Here we show that ...

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Hemithioindigo (HTI) photoswitches have a tremendous potential for biological and supramolecular applications due to their absorptions in the visible-light region in conjunction with ultrafast photoisomerization and high thermal bistability. Rational tailoring of the photophysical properties for a specific application is the key to exploit the full potential ...

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Aneuploidy is a hallmark of cancer and is associated with malignancy and poor prognosis. Recent studies have revealed that aneuploidy inhibits proliferation, causes distinct alterations in the transcriptome and proteome and disturbs cellular proteostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in gene expression and the impairment of ...

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Excited-state dynamics are essential to understanding the formation of DNA lesions induced by UV light. By using femtosecond IR spectroscopy, it was possible to determine the lifetimes of the excited states of all four bases in the double-stranded environment of natural DNA. After UV excitation of the DNA duplex, we detected a concerted decay of base pairs ...

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Bacterial ribosomes stall on polyproline stretches and require the elongation factor P (EF-P) to relieve the arrest. Yet it remains unclear why evolution has favored the development of EF-P rather than selecting against the occurrence of polyproline stretches in proteins. We have discovered that only a single polyproline stretch is invariant across all ...

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During protein synthesis, nascent polypeptide chains within the ribosomal tunnel can act in cis to induce ribosome stalling and regulate expression of downstream genes. The Staphylococcus aureus ErmCL leader peptide induces stalling in the presence of clinically important macrolide antibiotics, such as erythromycin, leading to the induction of the downstream ...

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Throughout their life, bacteria need to sense and respond to environmental stress. Thus, such stress responses can require dramatic cellular reprogramming, both at the transcriptional as well as the translational level. This review focuses on the protein factors that interact with the bacterial translational apparatus to respond to and cope with different ...

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The X-ray crystal and NMR spectroscopic structures of the peptide drug candidate Cilengitide (cyclo(RGDf(NMe)Val)) in various solvents are obtained and compared in addition to the integrin receptor bound conformation. The NMR-based solution structures exhibit conformations closely resembling the X-ray structure of Cilengitide bound to the head group of ...

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The concept of proteasome inhibition ranks among the latest achievements in the treatment of blood cancer and represents a promising strategy for modulating autoimmune diseases. In this study, we describe peptidic sulfonyl fluoride inhibitors that selectively block the catalytic β5 subunit of the immunoproteasome by inducing only marginal cytotoxic effects. ...

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Microtubule dynamics in neurons play critical roles in physiology, injury and disease and determine microtubule orientation, the cell biological correlate of neurite polarization. Several microtubule binding proteins, including ​end-binding protein 3 (​EB3), specifically bind to the growing plus tip of microtubules. In the past, fluorescently tagged ...

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DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious forms of DNA damage and can result in cell inviability or chromosomal aberrations. The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) ATPase-nuclease complex is a central player in the cellular response to DSBs and is implicated in the sensing and nucleolytic processing of DSBs, as well as in DSB signaling by ...

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