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Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) is increasingly being used to determine distances, structures, and dynamics of biomolecules in vitro and in vivo. However, generalized protocols and FRET standards to ensure the reproducibility and accuracy of measurements of FRET efficiencies are currently lacking. Here we report the results of a ...

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The nature of chromatin as regular succession of nucleosomes has gained iconic status. However, since most nucleosomes in metazoans are poorly positioned it is unknown to which extent bulk genomic nucleosome repeat length reflects the regularity and spacing of nucleosome arrays at individual loci. We describe a new approach to map nucleosome array regularity and ...

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Background
Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) based on human brain samples allow a deep and direct understanding of epigenetic dysregulation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, strong variation of cell-type proportions across brain tissue samples represents a significant source of data noise. Here, we report the first EWAS based on sorted neuronal and ...

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Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been instrumental to determine the structure and dynamics of biomolecules but distances above 8 nanometer are not accessible. However, with the advent and rapid development of super-resolution (SR) microscopy, distances between two fluorescent dyes below 20 nanometer can be resolved, which hitherto has been ...

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Wir freuen uns, dass am 11.6.2018 im Beisein der Bayerischen Staatsministerin für Wissenschaft und Kunst, Professor Marion Kiechle, der Grundstein für unseren neuen ICEM-Forschungsbau gelegt werden konnte.

Der Bau des Institut für Chemische Epigenetik (ICEM) wird rund 34 Millionen Euro zuzüglich der Erstausstattung kosten. Der Freistaat Bayern übernimmt gut 20 ...

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A major mystery of many types of neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), remains the underlying, disease-specific neuronal damage. Because of the strong interconnectivity of neurons in the brain, neuronal dysfunction necessarily disrupts neuronal circuits. In this article, we review evidence for the disruption of large-scale ...

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Photoisomerization reactions are quintessential processes driving molecular machines and motors, govern smart materials, catalytic processes, and photopharmacology, and lie at the heart of vision, phototaxis, or vitamin production. Despite this plethora of applications fundamental photoisomerization mechanisms are not well understood at present. The famous ...

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Although distinct amino acid motifs containing consecutive prolines (polyP) cause ribosome stalling, which necessitates recruitment of the translation elongation factor P (EF-P), they occur strikingly often in bacterial proteomes. For example, polyP motifs are found in more than half of all histidine kinases in Escherichia coli K-12, which raises the question of ...

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Constitutive NF-κB signaling represents a hallmark of chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases. The E3 ligase TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) acts as a key regulator bridging innate immunity, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and antigen receptors to the canonical NF-κB pathway. Structural analysis and point mutations have unraveled the essential role of ...

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Post-transcriptional mechanisms play a predominant role in the control of microRNA (miRNA) production. Recognition of the terminal loop of precursor miRNAs by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) influences their processing; however, the mechanistic basis for how levels of individual or subsets of miRNAs are regulated is mostly unexplored. We previously showed that hnRNP ...

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The need  for new pharmacological lead structures, especially against drug resistances, has led to a surge in natural product research and discovery. New biosynthetic gene cluster capturing methods to efficiently clone and heterologously express natural product pathways have thus been developed. Direct pathway cloning (DiPaC) is an emerging synthetic biology ...

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Molecular motors undergo repetitive directional motions upon external energy input. A profound challenge is the defined transfer of directional motor motions to remote entities at the molecular scale. Herein, we present a molecular setup that allows for the transfer of the directional rotation of a light‐powered motor unit onto a remote biaryl axis via an ...

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The ability to remember and to navigate to safe places is necessary for survival. Place navigation is known to involve medial entorhinal cortex (MEC)-hippocampal connections. However, learning-dependent changes in neuronal activity in the distinct circuits remain unknown. Here, by using optic fiber photometry in freely behaving mice, we discovered the ...

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Checkpoint molecules such as programmed death 1 (PD-1) dampen excessive T cell activation to preserve immune homeostasis. PD-1-specific monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized cancer therapy, as they reverse tumour-induced T cell exhaustion and restore CTL activity. Based on this success, deciphering underlying mechanisms of PD-1-mediated immune functions has ...

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The analysis of the post-translational modification (PTM) state of proteins using mass spectrometry-based bottom-up proteomic workflows has evolved into a powerful tool for the study of cellular regulatory events that are not directly encoded at the genome level. Besides frequently detected modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitination, ...

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The sorbicillinoids are a large family of fungal natural products, many of which possess highly challenging molecular architectures. Depending on their individual structures they exhibit strong biological activities ranging from radical scavenging and anti‐infective properties to cytotoxicity. Despite the resulting strong biomedical potential of these natural ...

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Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) is a spectroscopic technique that is used for characterization of molecular properties in the solid phase at atomic resolution. In particular, using the approach of magic-angle spinning (MAS), ssNMR has seen widespread applications for topics ranging from material sciences to catalysis, metabolomics, and structural ...

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The decay of electronically excited states of thymine (Thy) and thymidine 5′-monophosphate (TMP) was studied by time-resolved UV/vis and IR spectroscopy. In addition to the well-established ultrafast internal conversion to the ground state, a so far unidentified UV-induced species is observed. In D2O, this species decays with a time constant of 300 ps for thymine ...

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Pore-forming toxins (PFT) are virulence factors that transform from soluble to membrane-bound states. The Yersinia YaxAB system represents a family of binary α-PFTs with orthologues in human, insect, and plant pathogens, with unknown structures. YaxAB was shown to be cytotoxic and likely involved in pathogenesis, though the molecular basis for its two-component ...

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