News 2016



arthur_konnerth-birkner_et_al_cell_calcium_2016_online_500.100x0.jpeg

Two-photon laser scanning calcium imaging has emerged as a useful method for the exploration of neural function and structure at the cellular and subcellular level in vivo. The applications range from imaging of subcellular compartments such as dendrites, spines and axonal boutons up to the functional analysis of large neuronal or glial populations. However, the ...

|READ MORE|

wilson_gkw1272_500.100x0.jpg

Ribosomes are the protein synthesizing machines of the cell. Recent advances in cryo-EM have led to the determination of structures from a variety of species, including bacterial 70S and eukaryotic 80S ribosomes as well as mitoribosomes from eukaryotic mitochondria, however, to date high resolution structures of plastid 70S ribosomes have been lacking. Here we ...

|READ MORE|

kessler-746_2016_j_nucl_med_avb6_cancer_integrin_imaging_500.100x0.jpeg

Expression of the cellular transmembrane receptor αvβ6 integrin is essentially restricted to malignant epithelial cells in carcinomas of a broad variety of lineages, while it is virtually absent in normal adult tissues. Thus, it is a highly attractive target for tumor imaging and therapy. Furthermore, αvβ6 integrin plays an important role for the ...

|READ MORE|

soll-art_3a10_1007_2fs00709-016-1057-9neu_500.100x0.jpeg

Here, we describe the development of chloroplasts and the buildup of the thylakoid membranes in growing Arabidopsis leaves. Organelles were analyzed from three distinct positions, namely, at the tip, the upper leaf margin, and the base from leaves 1, 3, 5, and 7 of 14-day-old plants. Clear developmental gradients are described within a given leaf and between ...

|READ MORE|

soll-art_3a10_1007_2fs11103-016-0566-4neu2_500.100x0.jpeg

Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute a large protein family in flowering plants and are thought to be mostly involved in organellar RNA metabolism. The subgroup of PLS-type PPR proteins were found to be the main specificity factors of cytidine to uridine RNA editing. Identifying the targets of PLS-type PPR proteins can help in elucidating the ...

|READ MORE|

beckmann_wilson_nature20821_500.100x0.jpeg

In bacteria, ribosomes stalled on truncated mRNAs lacking a stop codon are rescued by either the transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), alternative rescue factor A (ArfA) or ArfB rescue systems1. While tmRNA- and ArfB-ribosome structures have been elucidated2–7, structural insight into how ArfA recognizes the presence of truncated mRNAs and recruits the canonical ...

|READ MORE|

biel-wahl-schott-cws_nature_protoc_2_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a versatile method for analyzing protein–protein interactions within living cells. This protocol describes a nondestructive live-cell FRET assay for robust quantification of relative binding affinities for protein–protein interactions. Unlike other approaches, our method correlates the measured FRET efficiencies to ...

|READ MORE|

wilson_prunetti_archaea_2016_500.100x0.jpg

Translation initiation factor 5A (IF5A) is essential and highly conserved in Eukarya (eIF5A) and Archaea (aIF5A). The activity of IF5A requires hypusine, a posttranslational modification synthesized in Eukarya from the polyamine precursor spermidine. Intracellular polyamine analyses revealed that agmatine and cadaverine were the main polyamines produced in ...

|READ MORE|

sattler-mourao_etal_elife2016_500.100x0.jpeg

The multi-domain splicing factor RBM5 regulates the balance between antagonistic isoforms of the apoptosis-control genes FAS/CD95, Caspase-2 and AID. An OCRE (OCtamer REpeat of aromatic residues) domain found in RBM5 is important for alternative splicing regulation and mediates interactions with components of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP. We show that the RBM5 OCRE ...

|READ MORE|

ak-mann-raeschle_mco_2016_commentary_on_etaa1_500.100x0.jpeg

Stalling of the DNA replication machinery activates the ATR checkpoint kinase, which coordinates the cellular responses to replication stress. New studies identify a novel ATR activator, ETAA1, which is indispensable for the maintenance of genome integrity. Dysregulation of ETAA1 may contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer.
 

|READ MORE|

carell_c6cc07517g_500.100x0.jpeg

A deeper investigation of the chemistry that occurs on the newly discovered epigenetic DNA bases 5-hydroxymethyl-(hmdC), 5-formyl-(fdC), and 5-carboxy-deoxycytidine (cadC) requires chemical tool compounds, which are able to dissect the different potential reaction pathways in cells. Here we report that the 2′-(R)-fluorinated derivatives F-hmdC, F-fdC, and F-cadC, ...

|READ MORE|

zacharias-prot25196_500.100x0.jpeg

The ATTRACT coarse-grained docking approach in combination with various types of atomistic, flexible refinement methods has been applied to predict protein-protein and peptide-protein complexes in CAPRI rounds 28–36. For a large fraction of CAPRI targets (12 out of 18), at least one model of acceptable or better quality was generated, corresponding to a success ...

|READ MORE|

hagn-nwg-tum-nmeth_4079_500.100x0.jpeg

We engineered covalently circularized nanodiscs (cNDs) which, compared with standard nanodiscs, exhibit enhanced stability, defined diameter sizes and tunable shapes. Reconstitution into cNDs enhanced the quality of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra for both VDAC-1, a β-barrel membrane protein, and the G-protein-coupled receptor NTR1, an α-helical membrane ...

|READ MORE|

misgeld-romanelli_nat_com_2016_-_myelinosomes_500.100x0.jpeg

Oligodendrocyte damage is a central event in the pathogenesis of the common neuroinflammatory condition, multiple sclerosis (MS). Where and how oligodendrocyte damage is initiated in MS is not completely understood. Here, we use a combination of light and electron microscopy techniques to provide a dynamic and highly resolved view of oligodendrocyte damage in ...

|READ MORE|

sieber-c6cc08365j_500.100x0.jpeg

Ramariolides A–D are natural products with antibacterial activity. To exploit their cellular mechanism, we here devise the first total synthesis and prepare a photoprobe for target identification. Antibacterial testing against several pathogenic strains including Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed the highest potency for ramariolide A. Chemical proteomics ...

|READ MORE|

mann-hansen_et_al_nat_cell_biol_2016_-_scai_500.100x0.jpeg

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions, whose accurate repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) is crucial for genome integrity and is strongly influenced by the local chromatin environment1, 2. Here, we identify SCAI (suppressor of cancer cell invasion) as a 53BP1-interacting chromatin-associated ...

|READ MORE|

sattler-lamb-voith_von_voithenberg_pnas_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

An essential early step in the assembly of human spliceosomes onto pre-mRNA involves the recognition of regulatory RNA cis elements in the 3′ splice site by the U2 auxiliary factor (U2AF). The large (U2AF65) and small (U2AF35) subunits of the U2AF heterodimer contact the polypyrimidine tract (Py-tract) and the AG-dinucleotide, respectively. The tandem RNA ...

|READ MORE|

leonhardt_2017_ro_der_pharmres_500.100x0.jpg

Purpose
Cytosolic delivery of nanobodies for molecular target binding and fluorescent labeling in living cells.

Methods
Fluorescently labeled nanobodies were formulated with sixteen different sequence-defined oligoaminoamides. The delivery of formulated anti-GFP nanobodies into different target protein-containing HeLa cell lines was investigated by flow cytometry ...

|READ MORE|

kuster-koch_et_al_j_proteme_research_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Although substantial progress has been made regarding the use of molecularly targeted cancer therapies, resistance almost invariably develops and presents a major clinical challenge. The tumor microenvironment can rescue cancer cells from kinase inhibitors by growth-factor-mediated induction of pro-survival pathways. Here we show that epidermal growth factor ...

|READ MORE|

gulder-marinedrugs-14-00200_500.100x0.jpeg

The glycogen-synthase-kinase 3 (GSK-3) is an important target in drug discovery. This enzyme is involved in the signaling pathways of type 2 diabetes, neurological disorders, cancer, and other diseases. Therefore, inhibitors of GSK-3 are promising drug candidates for the treatment of a broad range of diseases. Here we report pannorin, alternariol, and ...

|READ MORE|

sieber-c6sc03438a_500.100x0.jpeg

Caseinolytic proteases (ClpP) are important for recognition and controlled degradation of damaged proteins. While the majority of bacterial organisms utilize only a single ClpP, Listeria monocytogenes expresses two isoforms (LmClpP1 and LmClpP2). LmClpPs assemble into either a LmClpP2 homocomplex or a LmClpP1/2 heterooligomeric complex. The heterocomplex in ...

|READ MORE|

soll-plant_physiol_-2016-murcha-2471-90_500.100x0.jpeg

A variety of eukaryotes, in particular plants, do not contain the required number of tRNAs to support the translation of mitochondria-encoded genes and thus need to import tRNAs from the cytosol. This study identified two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) proteins, Tric1 and Tric2 (for tRNA import component), which on simultaneous inactivation by T-DNA insertion ...

|READ MORE|

groll_145_stingele_molcell_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Covalent DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) are toxic DNA lesions that interfere with essential chromatin transactions, such as replication and transcription. Little was known about DPC-specific repair mechanisms until the recent identification of a DPC-processing protease in yeast. The existence of a DPC protease in higher eukaryotes is inferred from data in Xenopus ...

|READ MORE|

groll_146_huber_embo_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Inhibition of the immunoproteasome subunit β5i alleviates autoimmune diseases in preclinical studies and represents a promising new anti‐inflammatory therapy. However, the lack of structural data on the human immunoproteasome still hampers drug design. Here, we systematically determined the potency of seven α' β' epoxyketone inhibitors with varying N‐caps and ...

|READ MORE|

schneider-richter-antes-sieber-mandl_et_al-2016-angewandte_chemie_international_edition_500.100x0.jpeg

Gram-negative bacteria represent a challenging task for antibacterial drug discovery owing to their impermeable cell membrane and restricted uptake of small molecules. We herein describe the synthesis of natural-product-derived epoxycyclohexenones and explore their antibiotic activity against several pathogenic bacteria. A compound with activity against ...

|READ MORE|

schotta-genes_dev_-2016-ramesh-2199-212_500.100x0.jpeg

In order to understand whether early epigenetic mechanisms instruct the long-term behavior of neural stem cells (NSCs) and their progeny, we examined Uhrf1 (ubiquitin-like PHD ring finger-1; also known as Np95), as it is highly expressed in NSCs of the developing brain and rapidly down-regulated upon differentiation. Conditional deletion of Uhrf1 in the ...

|READ MORE|

leonhardt_2016_borgel_nar_500.100x0.jpeg

Functional genomic elements are marked by characteristic DNA and histone modification signatures. How combinatorial chromatin modification states are recognized by epigenetic reader proteins and how this is linked to their biological function is largely unknown. Here we provide a detailed molecular analysis of chromatin recognition by the lysine demethylase ...

|READ MORE|

soll-cellpres-main_500.100x0.jpeg

Protein import into chloroplasts is an essential process for plant survival. Numerous studies in recent years have revealed many facts about the components involved and mechanistic features, but have also turned up some controversies. Especially the composition and function of the Tic (translocon at the inner envelope of chloroplasts) complex(es) are vividly ...

|READ MORE|

kuster-heinzlmeir_et_al_acs_chem_biol_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

The receptor tyrosine kinase EPHA2 (Ephrin type-A receptor 2) plays important roles in oncogenesis, metastasis, and treatment resistance, yet therapeutic targeting, drug discovery, or investigation of EPHA2 biology is hampered by the lack of appropriate inhibitors and structural information. Here, we used chemical proteomics to survey 235 clinical kinase ...

|READ MORE|

misgeld-brill_et_al_neuron_2016_-_spastin_and_se_500.100x0.jpeg

Developmental axon remodeling is characterized by the selective removal of branches from axon arbors. The mechanisms that underlie such branch loss are largely unknown. Additionally, how neuronal resources are specifically assigned to the branches of remodeling arbors is not understood. Here we show that axon branch loss at the developing mouse neuromuscular ...

|READ MORE|

kessler-sattler-jagtap_etal_jmedchem2016_500.100x0.jpeg

U2AF homology motifs (UHMs) are atypical RNA recognition motif domains that mediate critical protein–protein interactions during the regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing and other processes. The recognition of UHM domains by UHM ligand motif (ULM) peptide sequences plays important roles during early steps of spliceosome assembly. Splicing factor 45 kDa ...

|READ MORE|

sieber-10_1038_nmicrobiol_2016_189_500.100x0.jpeg

Helicobacter pylori specifically colonizes the human gastric epithelium and is the major causative agent for ulcer disease and gastric cancer development. Here, we identify members of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family as receptors of H. pylori and show that HopQ is the surface-exposed adhesin that specifically binds human ...

|READ MORE|

ladurner-mbc-2016_10_19_500.100x0.jpeg

Chromatin relaxation is one of the earliest cellular responses to DNA damage. However, what determines these structural changes, including their ATP requirement, is not well understood. Using live-cell imaging and laser microirradiation to induce DNA lesions, we show that the local chromatin relaxation at DNA damage sites is regulated by PARP1 enzymatic activity. ...

|READ MORE|

richter-sattler-buchner-2016_importanceofcycletiminghsp90_500.100x0.jpeg

Hsp90 couples ATP hydrolysis to large conformational changes essential for activation of client proteins. The structural transitions involve dimerization of the N-terminal domains and formation of 'closed states' involving the N-terminal and middle domains. Here, we used Hsp90 mutants that modulate ATPase activity and biological function as probes to address the ...

|READ MORE|

dube-guentner_2016_cej_500.100x0.jpg

The first example of a bis-hemithioindigo (bis-HTI)-based molecular receptor was realized. Its folding and selective binding affinity for aromatic guest molecules can be precisely controlled by visible light and heat. The thermodynamically stable state of the bis-HTI is the s-shaped planar Z,Z-configuration. After irradiation with 420 nm light only the ...

|READ MORE|

mann-haahr_et_al__nat_cell_biol_2016_-_etaa1_500.100x0.jpeg

Activation of the ATR kinase following perturbations to DNA replication relies on a complex mechanism involving ATR recruitment to RPA-coated single-stranded DNA via its binding partner ATRIP and stimulation of ATR kinase activity by TopBP1. Here, we discovered an independent ATR activation pathway in vertebrates, mediated by the uncharacterized protein ETAA1 ...

|READ MORE|

sattler-emmanouilidis_etal_bbamcr_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

The peroxisomal proteins (peroxins) that mediate the import of peroxisomal matrix proteins have been identified. Recently, the purification of a functional peroxisomal translocon has been reported. However, the molecular details of the import pathways and the mechanisms by which the cargo is translocated into the lumen of the organelle are still poorly ...

|READ MORE|

sattler-subramaniam_etal_scirep2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Single strand annealing proteins (SSAPs) like Redβ initiate homologous recombination by annealing complementary DNA strands. We show that C-terminally truncated Redβ, whilst still able to promote annealing and nucleoprotein filament formation, is unable to mediate homologous recombination. Mutations of the C-terminal domain were evaluated using both single- and ...

|READ MORE|

ladurner-mol_cell-2016_10_17_500.100x0.jpeg

DNA damage induces chemical and structural changes in our chromatin-embedded genome. In a recent issue of Nature Communications, Grundy et al. (2016) identify a role for PARP3 in the repair of single-strand breaks and reveal that PARP3 mono-ADP-ribosylates nucleosomal histone H2B.

|READ MORE|

ladurner-nucl__acids_res-2016_10_05_500.100x0.jpeg

Histone chaperones are proteins that interact with histones to regulate the thermodynamic process of nucleosome assembly. sNASP and ASF1 are conserved histone chaperones that interact with histones H3 and H4 and are found in a multi-chaperoning complex in vivo. Previously we identified a short peptide motif within H3 that binds to the TPR domain of sNASP with ...

|READ MORE|

skerra-kuster-gande_et_al-2016-chembiochem_500.100x0.jpeg

The receptor tyrosine kinase EPHA2 is overexpressed in several cancer entities (breast, head and neck, non-small cell lung cancer). Small molecule-based inhibition of the activity of the EPHA2 kinase domain (KD) has been seen as an important strategy for achieving therapeutic intervention. However, obtaining structural information by protein crystallography or by ...

|READ MORE|

lamb-cell-galilee_structure_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

HIV-1 integrase (IN) catalyzes viral DNA integration into the host genome and facilitates multifunctional steps including virus particle maturation. Competency of IN to form multimeric assemblies is functionally critical, presenting an approach for anti-HIV strategies. Multimerization of IN depends on interactions between the distinct subunit domains and among ...

|READ MORE|

sieber-kaiser_et_al-2016-european_journal_of_inorganic_chemistry_500.100x0.jpeg

Self-assembled coordination cages are interesting as drug-delivery systems. Therefore, the synthesis of new M2L4 (M = Pd, Pt) molecular cages derived from highly fluorescent, rigid polyaromatic ligands is reported herein, and the first Pt2L4 cage with a ligand consisting of three pyridine moieties is described. The photophysical properties were examined, and they ...

|READ MORE|

leonhardt-2016_schmidtmann_nucleus_500.100x0.jpeg

Chromatin structure and function are determined by a plethora of proteins whose genome-wide distribution is typically assessed by immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Here, we developed a novel tool to investigate the local chromatin environment at specific DNA sequences. We combined the programmable DNA binding of dCas9 with the promiscuous biotin ligase BirA* (CasID) to ...

|READ MORE|

kuster-schneider-gross_nqo2_immunity_2016_500.100x0.jpg

Imiquimod is a small-molecule ligand of Toll-like receptor-7 (TLR7) that is licensed for the treatment of viral infections and cancers of the skin. Imiquimod has TLR7-independent activities that are mechanistically unexplained, including NLRP3 inflammasome activation in myeloid cells and apoptosis induction in cancer cells. We investigated the mechanism ...

|READ MORE|

ak-endres-sebastian_kobold-astoldi_et_al__tetramabs_simultaneous_targeting_of_four_oncogenic_receptor_tyrosine_kinases_500.100x0.jpeg

Monoclonal antibody-based targeted tumor therapy has greatly improved treatment options for patients. Antibodies against oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), especially the ErbB receptor family, are prominent examples. However, long-term efficacy of such antibodies is limited by resistance mechanisms. Tumor evasion by a priori or acquired activation of ...

|READ MORE|

kuster-digiwest_nat_commun_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Dissecting cellular signalling requires the analysis of large number of proteins. The DigiWest approach we describe here transfers the western blot to a bead-based microarray platform. By combining gel-based protein separation with immobilization on microspheres, hundreds of replicas of the initial blot are created, thus enabling the comprehensive analysis of ...

|READ MORE|

ochsenfeld-j_chem_phys_145-124103_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

We present a (sub)linear-scaling algorithm to determine indirect nuclear spin–spin coupling constants at the Hartree–Fock and Kohn–Sham density functional levels of theory. Employing efficient integral algorithms and sparse algebra routines, an overall (sub)linear scaling behavior can be obtained for systems with a non-vanishing HOMO-LUMO gap. Calculations on ...

|READ MORE|

groll_143_frank_chembiochem_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases (VHPOs) are a class of halogenating enzymes found in fungi, lichen, algae, and bacteria. We report the cloning, purification, and characterization of a functional VHPO from the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina (AmVHPO), including its structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Compared to other VHPOs, the AmVHPO ...

|READ MORE|

groll_144_dubiella_angewandte_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Electrophiles are commonly used for the inhibition of proteases. Notably, inhibitors of the proteasome, a central determinant of cellular survival and a target of several FDA-approved drugs, are mainly characterized by the reactivity of their electrophilic head groups. We aimed to tune the inhibitory strength of peptidic sulfonate esters by varying the leaving ...

|READ MORE|

rcihter-buchner-2016_allostericregulationpointshsp90_500_jpeg.100x0.jpg

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone responsible for the activation, maturation, and trafficking of several hundred client proteins in the cell. It is well known that (but not understood how) residues far away from Hsp90's nucleotide binding pocket can regulate its ATPase activity, a phenomenon called allosteric regulation. Here, ...

|READ MORE|

langosch-stelzer_chemistryselect_2016_500.100x0.jpg

The transmembrane helix of the amyloid precursor protein is subject to proteolytic cleavages by γ-secretase at different sites resulting in Aβ peptides of different length and toxicity. A number of point mutations within this transmembrane helix alter the cleavage pattern thus enhancing production of toxic Aβ peptide species that are at the root of familial ...

|READ MORE|

sieber-skerra-_biological_chemistry_comparison_of_enzymatic_properties_and_small_molecule_inhibition_of_-glutamyltrans.100x0.jpeg

Helicobacter pylori infects the stomach of 50% of the population worldwide, thus causing chronic gastritis. Although this infection can be cured by antibiotic treatment, therapeutic options are increasingly limited due to the development of resistances. The γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (gGT) of Helicobacter pylori (HpgGT) is a virulence factor important for ...

|READ MORE|

ochsenfeld-j_chem_theorycomput_-_12-5170_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

A theoretical study on the NMR shifts of the hydrogen bond network around the chromophore, para-coumaric acid (pCA), of photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is presented. Previous discrepancies between theoretical and experimental studies are resolved by our findings of a previously unknown rapid conformational exchange near the active site of PYP. This exchange ...

|READ MORE|

sattler-delaforge_etal_frontmolbio2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Intrinsically disordered linkers provide multi-domain proteins with degrees of conformational freedom that are often essential for function. These highly dynamic assemblies represent a significant fraction of all proteomes, and deciphering the physical basis of their interactions represents a considerable challenge. Here we describe the difficulties associated ...

|READ MORE|

richter-2016_nucleotide-free_sb_raf_binds_cdc37_and_hsp90_500.100x0.jpeg

The molecular chaperone Hsp90 and its cofactor Cdc37 are required for the stability of protein kinases in the cellular environment. Upon pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90, the Hsp90-dependent kinases are degraded quickly by the proteasome. Clear physiological evidence for the formation of heterooligomeric complexes between the chaperone system and its kinase ...

|READ MORE|

matthias_rief-martin_zacharias-hendrik_dietz-aaf5508_full_500.100x0.jpeg

INTRODUCTION: In DNA double helices, hydrogen bonds connect the base pairs across the two strands, and stacking bonds act along the helical axis between neighboring base pairs. Our understanding of DNA and the way it is processed in biology would profit from improved knowledge about the elementary bonds in DNA. Detailed knowledge of the time scales for breaking ...

|READ MORE|

carell_sattler_chem201602784_500.100x0.jpg

Structural features and internal dynamics of inosine-containing RNAs are poorly understood. NMR studies of such RNAs require 13C,15N-labeling, which cannot be achieved using in vitro transcription as inosine and guanosine are not distinguished by RNA polymerase. Herein, we report the synthesis of an inosine phosphoramidite with selective 13C8 and 15N7-isotope ...

|READ MORE|

misgeld-engerer_et_al_nat_biotech_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Improved expansion microscopy provides a super-resolution method that is accessible to any laboratory with a fluorescence microscope.
 

|READ MORE|

soll1_cipsm_500.100x0.jpeg

Twin-arginine translocation pathways have been well characterized in bacteria and chloroplasts. However, genes encoding for a TatC protein are found in almost all plant mitochondrial genomes. For the first time it could be demonstrated that this mitochondrial encoded TatC is a functional gene which is translated into a protein in the model plant Arabidopsis ...

|READ MORE|

skerra_bioconjchem16_500.100x0.jpeg

The Ornithodoros moubata Complement Inhibitor (OmCI) binds complement component 5 (C5) with high affinity and, thus, selectively prevents proteolytic activation of the terminal lytic complement pathway. A recombinant version of OmCI (also known as Coversin and rEV576) has proven efficacious in several animal models of complement-mediated diseases and successfully ...

|READ MORE|

jung-sieber-zhao_et_al__2016_500.100x0.jpeg

N-Acylhomoserine lactones are autoinducers of quorum sensing (QS) in Gram-negative bacteria. We exploit here the role of structurally related β-lactones in the inhibition of Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence and identify a derivative with nanomolar potency. Surprisingly, QS was not affected and combined proteomic/biochemical studies revealed insights into the ...

|READ MORE|

becker_2016_villa_nature_500.100x0.jpeg

The rules defining which small fraction of related DNA sequences can be selectively bound by a transcription factor are poorly understood. One of the most challenging tasks in DNA recognition is posed by dosage compensation systems that require the distinction between sex chromosomes and autosomes. In Drosophila melanogaster, the male-specific lethal dosage ...

|READ MORE|

becker_2016bo_rner_dom_500.100x0.jpeg

SWR1-type nucleosome remodeling factors replace histone H2A by variants to endow chromatin locally with specialized functionality. In Drosophila melanogaster a single H2A variant, H2A.V, combines functions of mammalian H2A.Z and H2A.X in transcription regulation and the DNA damage response. A major role in H2A.V incorporation for the only SWR1-like enzyme in ...

|READ MORE|

zinth_dube_jacs_2016_500.100x0.jpg

Controlling the internal motions of molecules by outside stimuli is a decisive task for the generation of responsive and complex molecular behavior and functionality. Light-induced structural changes of photoswitches are of special high interest due to the ease of signal application and high repeatability. Typically photoswitches use one reaction coordinate in ...

|READ MORE|

skerra_peds16c_500.100x0.jpeg

To facilitate biocatalytic conversion of the biotechnologically accessible dicyclic dialcohol isosorbide into its industrially relevant diamines, we have designed a fusion protein between two homo-oligomeric enzymes: the levodione reductase (LR) from Leifsonia aquatica and the variant L417M of the ω-aminotransferase from Paracoccus denitrificans (PDωAT(L417M)), ...

|READ MORE|

ladurner-angewandte_chemie_international_edition-2016_08_26_500.100x0.jpeg

Mono-ADP-ribosylation is a dynamic posttranslational modification (PTM) with important roles in signaling. Mammalian proteins that recognize or hydrolyze mono-ADP-ribosylated proteins have been described. We report the synthesis of ADP-ribosylated peptides from the proteins histone H2B, RhoA and, HNP-1. An innovative procedure was applied that makes use of ...

|READ MORE|

carell_anie201605994_500.100x0.jpg

5-Formyl-2′-deoxycytosine (fdC) is a recently discovered epigenetic base in the genome of stem cells, with yet unknown functions. Sequencing data show that the base is enriched in CpG islands of promoters and hence likely involved in the regulation of transcription during cellular differentiation. fdC is known to be recognized and excised by the enzyme ...

|READ MORE|

schotta-631_full_500.100x0.jpeg

Protective mechanisms based on RNA silencing directed against the propagation of transposable elements are highly conserved in eukaryotes. The control of transposable elements is mediated by small non-coding RNAs, which derive from transposon-rich heterochromatic regions that function as small RNA-generating loci. These clusters are transcribed and the precursor ...

|READ MORE|

plant_cell_guegel-aksoll_500.100x0.jpeg

Photosynthesis occurs in thylakoids, a highly specialized membrane system. In the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis 6803), the thylakoids are arranged parallel to the plasma membrane and occasionally converge toward it to form biogenesis centers. The initial steps in PSII assembly are thought to take place in these regions, which ...

|READ MORE|

carell_acs_2eorglett_2e6b02110_500.100x0.jpg

Investigation of the function of the new epigenetic bases requires the development of stabilized analogues that are stable during base excision repair (BER). Here we report the synthesis of 2′-(R)-fluorinated versions of the phosphoramidites of 5-methylcytosine (mC), 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC), 5-formylcytosine (fC), and 5-carboxycytosine (caC). For ...

|READ MORE|

feige_cell2016_500.100x0.jpg

Protein maturation in the endoplasmic reticulum is controlled by multiple chaperones, but how they recognize and determine the fate of their clients remains unclear. We developed an in vivo peptide library covering substrates of the ER Hsp70 system: BiP, Grp170, and three of BiP’s DnaJ-family co-factors (ERdj3, ERdj4, and ERdj5). In vivo binding studies revealed ...

|READ MORE|

carell_nature19081_500.100x0.jpg

Hypermethylation of the promoters of tumour suppressor genes represses transcription of these genes, conferring growth advantages to cancer cells. How these changes arise is poorly understood. Here we show that the activity of oxygen-dependent ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes is reduced by tumour hypoxia in human and mouse cells. TET enzymes catalyse DNA ...

|READ MORE|

2016_leonhardt_mann_r_pnas_500.100x0.jpg

Highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has developed strategies to inhibit host immune recognition. We identify cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase ring-finger and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1) as an interacting partner of the viral SARS-unique domain (SUD) and papain-like protease (PLpro), and, as a consequence, the ...

|READ MORE|

ladurner-_tibs-2016_09_01_500.100x0.jpeg

Chaperones mediate vital interactions between histones and DNA during chromatin assembly and reorganization. Two recent studies reveal novel substrates for the essential and conserved histone chaperone FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription (FACT). Prendergast et al. show that FACT helps deposit important histone-fold proteins on centromeres. Raj et al. find that ...

|READ MORE|

carell_ncomms12418_500.100x0.jpg

Methylation at 5-cytosine (5-mC) is a fundamental epigenetic DNA modification associated recently with cardiac disease. In contrast, the role of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC)—5-mC’s oxidation product—in cardiac biology and disease is unknown. Here we assess the hydroxymethylome in embryonic, neonatal, adult and hypertrophic mouse cardiomyocytes, showing that ...

|READ MORE|

martin_zacharias-attract-saxs_pup_500.100x0.jpg

Modeling driven by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) combines low-resolution data with computational modeling to predict the structure of biomolecular assemblies. A new protocol, ATTRACT-SAXS, has been developed and tested on a large protein-protein docking benchmark with simulated SAXS data. For 88% of cases, high-quality solutions were generated using SAXS ...

|READ MORE|

wilson-cold_spring_harb_perspect_med-2016-arenz-cshperspect_a025361_500.100x0.jpeg

Protein synthesis occurs on macromolecular machines, called ribosomes. Bacterial ribosomes and the translational machinery represent one of the major targets for antibiotics in the cell. Therefore, structural and biochemical investigations into ribosome-targeting antibiotics provide not only insight into the mechanism of action and resistance of antibiotics, but ...

|READ MORE|

wahl-schott-_biel-_michalakis-becirovic-2016-aav_vectors_for_fret-based_anal_500.100x0.jpg

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful method for the detection and quantification of stationary and dynamic protein-protein interactions. Technical limitations have hampered systematic in vivo FRET experiments to study protein-protein interactions in their native environment. Here, we describe a rapid and robust protocol that combines ...

|READ MORE|

skerra_biolchem16a_500.100x0.jpeg

Members of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) family play a central role in angiogenesis as well as lymphangiogenesis and are crucial for tumor growth and metastasis. In particular, VEGFR-3 expression is induced in endothelial cells during tumor angiogenesis. We report the design of anticalins that specifically recognize the ligand-binding ...

|READ MORE|

simon_schneider_chem2016_500.100x0.jpg

Heterocyclic aromatic amines react with purine bases and result in bulky DNA adducts that cause mutations. Such structurally diverse lesions are substrates for the nucleotide excision repair (NER). It is thought that the NER machinery recognises and verifies distorted DNA conformations, also involving the xeroderma pigmentosum group A and C proteins (XPA, XPC) ...

|READ MORE|

trauner2016_nchembio_2141_500.100x0.jpeg

Increased levels of the second messenger lipid diacylglycerol (DAG) induce downstream signaling events including the translocation of C1-domain-containing proteins toward the plasma membrane. Here, we introduce three light-sensitive DAGs, termed PhoDAGs, which feature a photoswitchable acyl chain. The PhoDAGs are inactive in the dark and promote the translocation ...

|READ MORE|

schotta-art_3a10_1186_2fs13059-016-1017-x_500.100x0.jpeg

Background

Histone modification H4K20me3 and its methyltransferase SUV420H2 have been implicated in suppression of tumorigenesis. The underlying mechanism is unclear, although H4K20me3 abundance increases during cellular senescence, a stable proliferation arrest and tumor suppressor process, triggered by diverse molecular cues, including activated oncogenes. ...

|READ MORE|

misgeld_curr_op_neurobio_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Neuronal mitochondria are receiving a rapidly increasing level of attention. This is to a significant part due to the ability to visualize neuronal mitochondria in novel ways, especially in vivo. Such an approach allows studying neuronal mitochondria in an intact tissue context, during different developmental states and in various genetic backgrounds and disease ...

|READ MORE|

trauner_cell2016_500.100x0.jpeg

The arrangement of β cells within islets of Langerhans is critical for insulin release through the generation of rhythmic activity. A privileged role for individual β cells in orchestrating these responses has long been suspected, but not directly demonstrated. We show here that the β cell population in situ is operationally heterogeneous. Mapping of islet ...

|READ MORE|

groll_142_xin_jmedchem_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

This work reports the development of highly potent and selective inhibitors of the β5c catalytic activity of human constitutive proteasomes. The work describes the design principles, large hydrophobic P3 residue and small hydrophobic P1 residue, that led to the synthesis of a panel of peptide epoxyketones; their evaluation and the selection of the most promising ...

|READ MORE|

skerra_jnm16_500.100x0.jpeg

Antibodies have become an established treatment modality in cancer therapy during the last decade. However, these treatments often suffer from insufficient and heterogeneous response despite validated antigen or target receptor expression in the tumor. In fact, therapeutic success depends both on the presence and accessibility of the tumor antigen by the ...

|READ MORE|

endres-tufman_et_al__2016_interleukin-22_is_elevated_in_lavage_from_patients_with_lung_cancer_and_other_pulmonary_diseases.100x0.jpeg

Background
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is involved in lung diseases such as pneumonia, asthma and lung cancer. Lavage mirrors the local environment, and may provide insights into the presence and role of IL-22 in patients.
Methods
Bronchoscopic lavage (BL) samples (n = 195, including bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial washings) were analysed for IL-22 using an ...

|READ MORE|

wilson-ncomms12026_500.100x0.jpeg

Nascent polypeptides can induce ribosome stalling, regulating downstream genes. Stalling of ErmBL peptide translation in the presence of the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin leads to resistance in Streptococcus sanguis. To reveal this stalling mechanism we obtained 3.6-Å-resolution cryo-EM structures of ErmBL-stalled ribosomes with erythromycin. The nascent ...

|READ MORE|

busche_konnerth_philosophical_transactions_b_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

An essential feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain, many years to decades before the onset of overt cognitive symptoms. We suggest that during this very extended early phase of the disease, soluble Aβ oligomers and amyloid plaques alter the function of local neuronal circuits and large-scale networks by ...

|READ MORE|

hartl-balchin_et_al_science_review_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Proteins are synthesized on ribosomes as linear chains of amino acids and must fold into unique three-dimensional structures to fulfill their biological functions. Protein folding is intrinsically error-prone, and how it is accomplished efficiently represents a problem of great biological and medical importance. During folding, the nascent polypeptide must ...

|READ MORE|

sattler-guatoli_etal_pnas2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a large, multidomain protein containing two catalytic domains: a Ras of complex proteins (Roc) G-domain and a kinase domain. Mutations associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been identified in both catalytic domains, as well as in several of its multiple putative regulatory domains. Several of ...

|READ MORE|

schotta-cell_1-s2_0-s2211124716306866-main_500.100x0.jpeg

During class switch recombination (CSR), B cells replace the Igh Cμ or δ exons with another downstream constant region exon (CH), altering the antibody isotype. CSR occurs through the introduction of AID-mediated double-strand breaks (DSBs) in switch regions and subsequent ligation of broken ends. Here, we developed an assay to investigate the dynamics of DSB ...

|READ MORE|

soll_j__biol__chem_-2016-harsman-17848-60_500.100x0.jpeg

Chloroplasts and mitochondria are unique endosymbiotic cellular organelles surrounded by two membranes. Essential metabolic networking between these compartments and their hosting cells requires the exchange of a large number of biochemical pathway intermediates in a directed and coordinated fashion across their inner and outer envelope membranes. Here we ...

|READ MORE|

imhof-nature_2016_saredi_500.100x0.jpg

After DNA replication, chromosomal processes including DNA repair and transcription take place in the context of sister chromatids. While cell cycle regulation can guide these processes globally, mechanisms to distinguish pre- and post-replicative states locally remain unknown. Here we reveal that new histones incorporated during DNA replication provide a ...

|READ MORE|

brauchle_bba_2016_500.100x0.jpg

We investigated the properties of six Escherichia coli adhesion inhibitors under static and under flow conditions. On mannan-covered model substrates and under static conditions, all inhibitors were able to almost completely abolish lectin-mediated E. coli adhesion. On a monolayer of living human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), the inhibitors reduced ...

|READ MORE|

wilson_pnas-2016-arenz-1604790113_500.100x0.jpg

The ribosome is one of the major targets for therapeutic antibiotics; however, the rise in multidrug resistance is a growing threat to the utility of our current arsenal. The orthosomycin antibiotics evernimicin (EVN) and avilamycin (AVI) target the ribosome and do not display cross-resistance with any other classes of antibiotics, suggesting that they bind to a ...

|READ MORE|

michalakis-stem_cell-derived_photoreceptor_transplants_differentially_integrate_into_mouse_models_of_cone-rod_dystrophy_san.100x0.jpeg

Purpose: Preclinical studies on photoreceptor transplantation provided evidence for restoration of visual function with pluripotent stem cells considered as a potential source for sufficient amounts of donor material. Adequate preclinical models representing retinal disease conditions of potential future patients are needed for translation research. Here we ...

|READ MORE|

schotta-1788_full_500.100x0.jpeg

The H3K9me3-specific histone methyltransferase Setdb1 impacts on transcriptional regulation by repressing both developmental genes and retrotransposons. How impaired retrotransposon silencing may lead to developmental phenotypes is currently unclear. Here, we show that loss of Setdb1 in pro-B cells completely abrogates B cell development. In pro-B cells, Setdb1 ...

|READ MORE|

jung_cell2016_500.100x0.jpg

Cells have evolved diverse mechanisms that maintain intracellular homeostasis in fluctuating environments. In bacteria, control is often exerted by bifunctional receptors acting as both kinase and phosphatase to regulate gene expression, a design known to provide robustness against noise. Yet how such antagonistic enzymatic activities are balanced as a function ...

|READ MORE|

sattler-zheng_etal_natcommun2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Centrioles and cilia are microtubule-based structures, whose precise formation requires controlled cytoplasmic tubulin incorporation. How cytoplasmic tubulin is recognized for centriolar/ciliary-microtubule construction remains poorly understood. Centrosomal-P4.1-associated-protein (CPAP) binds tubulin via its PN2-3 domain. Here, we show that a C-terminal ...

|READ MORE|

brauchle_torrano_nanoscale_2016_500.100x0.jpg

In this work we investigate the interaction between endothelial cells and nanoparticles emitted by catalytic converters. Although catalyst-derived particles are recognized as growing burden added to environmental pollution, very little is known about their health impact. We use platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles as model compounds for the actual emitted ...

|READ MORE|

hagn_pnas-2016-goricanec-1604125113_500.100x0.jpg

Heterotrimeric G proteins play a pivotal role in the signal-transduction pathways initiated by G-protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. Agonist–receptor binding causes GDP-to-GTP exchange and dissociation of the Gα subunit from the heterotrimeric G protein, leading to downstream signaling. Here, we studied the internal mobility of a G-protein α subunit in ...

|READ MORE|

kuster-cereblon_nat_medicine_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), such as thalidomide and its derivatives lenalidomide and pomalidomide, are key treatment modalities for hematologic malignancies, particularly multiple myeloma (MM) and del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor of the CRL4 ubiquitin ligase complex, is the primary target by which IMiDs mediate ...

|READ MORE|

skerra_diabetologia16_500.100x0.jpeg

Aims/hypothesis
Recombinant leptin offers a viable treatment for lipodystrophy (LD) syndromes. However, due to its short plasma half-life, leptin replacement therapy requires at least daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections. Here, we optimised this treatment strategy in LD mice by using a novel leptin version with extended plasma half-life using PASylation ...

|READ MORE|

michalakis-scho_n-2016-cav1_4_l-type_calcium_channels_cont_500.100x0.jpeg

Retinitis pigmentosa is an inherited blinding disorder characterized by progressive degeneration and loss of photoreceptors. The exact mechanism of degeneration and cell death of photoreceptors is not known, but is thought to involve disturbed Ca2+—signaling. Ca2+ can enter the photoreceptor cell via outer segment cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels or ...

|READ MORE|

eick_schuller_2016_tibs_500.100x0.jpg

Low-complexity (LC) domains regulate the aggregation and phase transition of proteins in a modification-dependent manner. The study of LC domain modifications has now become feasible, as shown by genetic variants of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) that provide access to the type and position of modifications of a LC domain by mass ...

|READ MORE|

ladurner_imhof_tibs-2016_06_06_500.100x0.jpeg

Loss of cellular homeostasis during aging results in altered tissue functions and leads to a general decline in fitness and, ultimately, death. As animals age, the control of gene expression, which is orchestrated by multiple epigenetic factors, degenerates. In parallel, metabolic activity and mitochondrial protein acetylation levels also change. These two ...

|READ MORE|

imhof_eick_hintermair_2016_sci_rep_500.100x0.jpg

Dynamic phosphorylation of Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 heptad-repeats in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit coordinates progression of RNA polymerase (Pol) II through the transcription cycle. Here, we describe an M phase-specific form of Pol II phosphorylated at Thr4, but not at Tyr1, Ser2, Ser5, and Ser7 residues. Thr4 phosphorylated Pol II ...

|READ MORE|

endres-wiedemann_et_al__a_novel_tlr7_agonist_reverses_nk_cell_anergy_and_cures_rma_s_lymphoma_bearing_mice_final_500.100x0.jpeg

Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonists are potent immune stimulants able to overcome cancer-associated immune suppression. Due to dose-limiting systemic toxicities, only the topically applied TLR7 agonist (imiquimod) has been approved for therapy of skin tumors. There is a need for TLR7-activating compounds with equivalent efficacy but less toxicity. SC1, a novel ...

|READ MORE|

wahl-schott-2016_jgp_cws_500.100x0.jpeg

Sodium–calcium exchangers (NCXs) are membrane transporters that play an important role in Ca2+ homeostasis and Ca2+ signaling. The recent crystal structure of NCX_Mj, a member of the NCX family from the archaebacterium Methanococcus jannaschii, provided insight into the atomistic details of sodium–calcium exchange. Here, we extend these findings by providing ...

|READ MORE|

skerra_peds16b_500.100x0.jpeg

ANTICALIgN is an interactive software developed to simultaneously visualize, analyze and modify alignments of DNA and/or protein sequences that arise during combinatorial protein engineering, design and selection. ANTICALIgN combines powerful functions known from currently available sequence analysis tools with unique features for protein engineering, in ...

|READ MORE|

kessler_hagn_naturescientific2016_500.100x0.jpg

p63 is a close homologue of p53 and, together with p73, is grouped into the p53 family of transcription factors. p63 is known to be involved in the induction of controlled apoptosis important for differentiation processes, germ line integrity and development. Despite its high homology to p53, especially within the DNA binding domain (DBD), p63-DBD does not show ...

|READ MORE|

beckmann_wilson_nucl__acids_res_-2016-arenz-nar_gkw470_500.100x0.jpeg

Under stress conditions, such as nutrient starvation, deacylated tRNAs bound within the ribosomal A-site are recognized by the stringent factor RelA, which converts ATP and GTP/GDP to (p)ppGpp. The signaling molecules (p)ppGpp globally rewire the cellular transcriptional program and general metabolism, leading to stress adaptation. Despite the additional ...

|READ MORE|

hopfner-untitled_article_2016-06-15t15-06-55z_500.100x0.jpg

RIG-I-like receptors detect cytosolic viral RNA and activate an antiviral innate immune response. A new study employs the one STrEP-purification technique and next generation sequencing to characterize physiological ligands in an infected cell. The view of all three RLRs bound to viral RNAs shows specialization, collaboration and new binding sites.
 

|READ MORE|

ak-endres-sebastian_kobold-pritsch_et_al__comparison_of_intranasal_outer_membrane_vesicles_500.100x0.jpeg

Purified protein vaccines often require adjuvants for efficient stimulation of immune responses. There is no licensed mucosal adjuvant on the market to adequately boost the immune response to purified antigens for intranasal applications in humans. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are attractive candidates potentially combining antigenic and adjuvant ...

|READ MORE|

jung_lorenzet_al_2016_500.100x0.jpg

Phages are bacteria targeting viruses and represent the most abundant biological entities on earth. Marine environments are exceptionally rich in bacteriophages, harboring a total of 4x1030 viruses. Nevertheless, marine phages remain poorly characterized. Here we describe the identification of intact prophage sequences in the genome of the marine ...

|READ MORE|

hopfner-2016-biopolymers_500.100x0.jpg

ATP binding cassette (ABC) ATPases form chemo-mechanical engines and switches that function in a broad range of biological processes. Most prominently, a very large family of integral membrane NTPases—ABC transporters—catalyzes the import or export of a diverse molecules across membranes. ABC proteins are also important components of the chromosome segregation, ...

|READ MORE|

carell_science2016_833_full.100x0.jpeg

The origin of life is believed to have started with prebiotic molecules reacting along unidentified pathways to produce key molecules such as nucleosides. To date, a single prebiotic pathway to purine nucleosides had been proposed. It is considered to be inefficient due to missing regioselectivity and low yields. We report that the condensation of ...

|READ MORE|

kessler-742_2016_aquibeprin_ga68_j_nucl_med-2016-notni-jnumed_116_173948_500.100x0.jpeg

Ga-68-Aquibeprin and Ga-68-Avebetrin are tracers for selective in-vivo mapping of integrins α5β1 and αvβ3, respectively, by positron emission tomography (PET). As both tracers exhibit very high affinity to their respective targets, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the specific activity of preparations of both tracers on in vivo imaging ...

|READ MORE|

schotta-1-s2_0-s2214784516300093-main_500.100x0.jpeg

Neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the human subventricular zone (SVZ) potentially contribute to lifelong neurogenesis, yet subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) contain NSPC signatures that highlight the importance of cell fate regulation. Among numerous regulatory mechanisms, the posttranslational methylations onto histone tails are crucial regulator ...

|READ MORE|

kessler-745_2016_angew_chem_ie_review_surface_coating_500.100x0.jpeg

Engineering biomaterials with integrin-binding activity is a very powerful approach to promote cell adhesion, modulate cell behavior, and induce specific biological responses at the surface level. The aim of this Review is to illustrate the evolution of surface-coating molecules in this field: from peptides and proteins with relatively low integrin-binding ...

|READ MORE|

wilson-mbio-2016-wilson_500.100x0.jpeg

The increase in multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria is limiting the utility of our current arsenal of antimicrobial agents. Mechanistically understanding how bacteria obtain antibiotic resistance is a critical first step to the development of improved inhibitors. One common mechanism for bacteria to obtain antibiotic resistance is by employing ATP-binding ...

|READ MORE|

martin_biel-i1552-5783-57-6-2501_500.100x0.jpeg

Purpose: This study aims to identify which aspects of the pupil light reflex are most influenced by rods and cones independently by analyzing pupil recordings from different mouse models of photoreceptor deficiency.

Methods: One-month-old wild type (WT), rodless (Rho−/−), coneless (Cnga3−/−), or photoreceptor less (Cnga3−/−; Rho−/− or Gnat1−/−) mice were ...

|READ MORE|

leonhardt_lamb_2016_crevenna_jcellbiol_500.100x0.jpg

Sorting and export of transmembrane cargoes and lysosomal hydrolases at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) are well understood. However, elucidation of the mechanism by which secretory cargoes are segregated for their release into the extracellular space remains a challenge. We have previously demonstrated that, in a reaction that requires Ca2+, the soluble ...

|READ MORE|

kuster_ruprecht_et_al-2016-proteomics_500.100x0.jpeg

Phosphorylation is a reversible posttranslational protein modification which plays a pivotal role in intracellular signaling. Despite extensive efforts, phosphorylation site mapping of proteomes is still incomplete motivating the exploration of alternative methods that complement existing workflows. In this study, we compared tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) on ...

|READ MORE|

soll_molplant2016.100x0.jpg

Protein import into chloroplasts has been a focus of research for several decades. The first publications dealing with this fascinating topic appeared in the 1970s. From the initial realization that many plastid proteins are being encoded for in the nucleus and require transport into their target organelle to the identification of import components in the ...

|READ MORE|

endres-wiedemann_et_al__2016_cancer_cell_derived_il_1alpha_induces_ccl22_and_the_recruitment_of_regulatory_t_cells_500.100x0.jpeg

In cancer patients, immunosuppression through regulatory T cells (Treg) is a crucial component of tumor immune evasion and contributes to disease progression. Tumor-infiltrating Treg in particular suppress local effector T cell responses and are associated with poor prognosis in tumors such as human pancreatic cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The ...

|READ MORE|

richter-2016_constructionandevaluation_500.100x0.jpeg

DNA-Microarrays are powerful tools to obtain expression data on the genome-wide scale. We performed microarray experiments to elucidate the transcriptional networks, which are up- or down-regulated in response to the expression of toxic polyglutamine proteins in yeast. Such experiments initially generate hit lists containing differentially expressed genes. To ...

|READ MORE|

misgeld_herwerth_et_al_annals_of_neurology_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, which resembles multiple sclerosis (MS). NMO differs from MS, however, in the distribution and histology of neuroinflammatory lesions and shows a more aggressive clinical course. Moreover, the majority of NMO patients carry immunoglobulin G autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 ...

|READ MORE|

becker-moritz_et_al_-_2016.100x0.jpg

Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) are widely used in the production of glycosylated therapeutic proteins such as antibodies. During expansion and maintenance, CHO cell lines are prone to production instability, which may be caused by promoter silencing, loss of transgene copies, or post-transcriptional effects. Silencing of recombinant genes may be accompanied by ...

|READ MORE|

groll_141_lechapelain_angewandte_2016_500.100x0.jpg

One life, two strategies: Crucial structural differences between the human and the Plasmodium falciparum proteasomes were recently identified. A combination of cryo-EM and functional characterization enabled the design of a selective antimalarial proteasome inhibitor that shows low toxicity in the host. When used with artemisinin, this ligand offers a new ...

|READ MORE|

leonhardt_2016_chagin_natcommun_500.100x0.jpg

Since the pioneering proposal of the replicon model of DNA replication 50 years ago, the predicted replicons have not been identified and quantified at the cellular level. Here, we combine conventional and super-resolution microscopy of replication sites in live and fixed cells with computational image analysis. We complement these data with genome size ...

|READ MORE|

skerra_biochemj16_500.100x0.jpeg

Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, in particular Aβ42 and Aβ40, exert neurotoxic effects and their overproduction leads to amyloid deposits in the brain, thus constituting an important biomolecular target for treatments ofAlzheimer’s disease (AD).We describe the engineering of cognate Anticalins as a novel type of neutralizing protein reagent based on the human ...

|READ MORE|

wahl-schott-biel-hum__mol__genet_-2016-nguyen-hmg_ddw103_500.100x0.jpeg

Peripherin-2 is a glycomembrane protein exclusively expressed in the light-sensing compartments of rod and cone photoreceptors designated as outer segments (OS). Mutations in peripherin-2 are associated with degenerative retinal diseases either affecting rod or cone photoreceptors. While peripherin-2 has been extensively studied in rods, there is only little ...

|READ MORE|

vothknecht_journalofexperimentalbotany2016.100x0.jpg

Calmodulins (CaMs) are important mediators of Ca2+ signals that are found ubiquitously in all eukaryotic organisms. Plants contain a unique family of calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) that exhibit greater sequence variance compared to canonical CaMs. The Arabidopsis thaliana proteins AtCML4 and AtCML5 are members of CML subfamily VII and possess a CaM domain ...

|READ MORE|

sattler-janowski_etal_naturecommun2016_500.100x0.jpeg

The RNA-binding protein Roquin is required to prevent autoimmunity. Roquin controls T-helper cell activation and differentiation by limiting the induced expression of costimulatory receptors such as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 4 (Tnfrs4 or Ox40). A constitutive decay element (CDE) with a characteristic triloop hairpin was previously shown to be ...

|READ MORE|

jung_biosci_rep2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Most bacterial response regulators make contact with DNA through a recognition α-helix in their DNA-binding domains. An emerging class of response regulators interacts with DNA via a relatively novel type of binding domain, called the LytTR domain, which is mainly composed of beta-strands. YpdB belongs to this latter class, is part of a nutrient-sensing network ...

|READ MORE|

schotta-1-s2_0-s1361841516300019-main_500.100x0.jpeg

The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a model-based approach for automatic 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis ...

|READ MORE|

brauchle_chemphyschem_2016.100x0.jpg

We present a method to artificially induce network formation of membrane glycoproteins and show the precise tuning of their interconnection on living cells. For this, membrane glycans are first metabolically labeled with azido sugars and then tagged with biotin by copper-free click chemistry. Finally, these biotin-tagged membrane proteins are interconnected with ...

|READ MORE|

reif-2016-solidstatenuclmagnreson_reif-sarkar_trends_500.100x0.jpeg

In recent years, MAS solid-state NMR has emerged as a technique for the investigation of soluble protein complexes. It was found that high molecular weight complexes do not need to be crystallized in order to obtain an immobilized sample for solid-state NMR investigations. Sedimentation induced by sample rotation impairs rotational diffusion of proteins and ...

|READ MORE|

gaub-2016_biomacro_ott_500.100x0.jpeg

Repetitive protein-based polymers are important for many applications in biotechnology and biomaterials development. Here we describe the sequential additive ligation of highly repetitive DNA sequences, their assembly into genes encoding protein–polymers with precisely tunable lengths and compositions, and their end-specific post-translational modification with ...

|READ MORE|

soll_molplant2016_500.100x0.jpeg

ATP synthases in chloroplasts (cpATPase) and mitochondria (mtATPase) are responsible for ATP production during photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation, respectively. Both enzymes consist of two multisubunit complexes, the membrane-bound coupling factor O and the soluble coupling factor 1. During cpATPase biosynthesis, several accessory factors facilitate ...

|READ MORE|

groll_140_huber_natcom_2016_500.100x0.jpg

Biogenesis of the 20S proteasome is tightly regulated. The N-terminal propeptides protecting the active-site threonines are autocatalytically released only on completion of assembly. However, the trigger for the self-activation and the reason for the strict conservation of threonine as the active site nucleophile remain enigmatic. Here we use mutagenesis, X-ray ...

|READ MORE|

hopfner-roskopf_et_al-2016-oncotarget_500.100x0.jpg

Simultaneous targeting of multiple tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in cancer immunotherapy is presumed to enhance tumor cell selectivity and to reduce immune escape.

The combination of B lymphoid marker CD19 and myeloid marker CD33 is exclusively present on biphenotypic B/myeloid leukemia cells. Triplebody 33-3-19 binds specifically to both of these TAAs and ...

|READ MORE|

skerra_proteins16_500.100x0.jpeg

Spirochaeta thermophila secretes seven glycoside hydrolases for plant biomass degradation that carry a carbohydrate-binding module 64 (CBM64) appended at the C-terminus. CBM64 adsorbs to various β1-4-linked pyranose substrates and shows high affinity for cellulose. We present the first crystal structure of a CBM64 at 1.2 Å resolution, which reveals a ...

|READ MORE|

sattler-jung_etal_scirep2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Trafficking of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Smoothened (Smo) to the primary cilium (PC) is a potential target to inhibit oncogenic Hh pathway activation in a large number of tumors. One drawback is the appearance of Smo mutations that resist drug treatment, which is a common reason for cancer treatment failure. Here, we undertook a high content screen ...

|READ MORE|

trauner_elife_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

NMDA receptors, which regulate synaptic strength and are implicated in learning and memory, consist of several subtypes with distinct subunit compositions and functional properties. To enable spatiotemporally defined, rapid and reproducible manipulation of function of specific subtypes, we engineered a set of photoswitchable GluN subunits ('LiGluNs'). ...

|READ MORE|

carell_ng3522_2016_500.100x0.jpg

The vertebrate body plan and organs are shaped during a conserved embryonic phase called the phylotypic stage. However, the mechanisms that guide the epigenome through this transition and their evolutionary conservation remain elusive. Here we report widespread DNA demethylation of enhancers during the phylotypic period in zebrafish, Xenopus tropicalis and mouse. ...

|READ MORE|

hartl-choe_et_al_nature16973_500.100x0.jpeg

Translation of messenger RNAs lacking a stop codon results in the addition of a carboxy-terminal poly-lysine tract to the nascent polypeptide, causing ribosome stalling. Non-stop proteins and other stalled nascent chains are recognized by the ribosome quality control (RQC) machinery and targeted for proteasomal degradation. Failure of this process leads to ...

|READ MORE|

reif-2016-biochemistry_reif-prade_sulindacsulfide-abeta-monomer_500.100x0.jpeg

Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by deposition of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in brain tissue of affected individuals. In recent years, many potential lead structures have been suggested that can potentially be used for diagnosis and therapy. However, the mode of action of these compounds is so far not understood. Among these small molecules, the nonsteroidal ...

|READ MORE|

sattler-jung_etal_plosone2016_500.100x0.jpeg

The seven-transmembrane receptor Smoothened (Smo) activates all Hedgehog (Hh) signaling by translocation into the primary cilia (PC), but how this is regulated is not well understood. Here we show that Pitchfork (Pifo) and the G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 2 (Gprasp2) are essential components of an Hh induced ciliary targeting complex able ...

|READ MORE|

langosch-entrapment_of_water_at_the_biochemistry_500.100x0.jpg

Little is known about how a membrane can regulate interactions between transmembrane helices. Here, we show that strong self-interaction of the transmembrane helix of human quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 2 rests on a motif of conserved amino acids comprising one face of the helix. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations suggest that water molecules enter the ...

|READ MORE|

hopfner-seifert_et_al-2016-embo_j_500.100x0.jpg

The Mre11–Rad50–Nbs1 (MRN) complex is a central factor in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The ATP-dependent mechanisms of how MRN detects and endonucleolytically processes DNA ends for the repair by microhomology-mediated end-joining or further resection in homologous recombination are still unclear. Here, we report the crystal structures of the ...

|READ MORE|

brauchle_carell_datz_nanoscale_2016_500.100x0.jpg

Effective and controlled drug delivery systems with on-demand release and targeting abilities have received enormous attention for biomedical applications. Here, we describe a novel enzyme-based cap system for mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) that is directly combined with a targeting ligand via bio-orthogonal click chemistry. The capping system is based on ...

|READ MORE|

jung_journal_pone_0149187_500.100x0.jpeg

Two-component systems are the major means by which bacteria couple adaptation to environmental changes. All utilize a phosphorylation cascade from a histidine kinase to a response regulator, and some also employ an accessory protein. The system-wide signaling fidelity of two-component systems is based on preferential binding between the signaling proteins. ...

|READ MORE|

imhof-biochem__pharmacol__2016_van_den_bosch.100x0.jpg

Lysine acetylations are reversible posttranslational modifications of histone and non-histone proteins that play important regulatory roles in signal transduction cascades and gene expression. Lysine acetylations are regulated by histone acetyltransferases as writers and histone deacetylases as erasers. Because of their role in signal transduction cascades, these ...

|READ MORE|

storchova_2016_ncomms10754_500.100x0.jpg

Aneuploidy is a hallmark of cancer and underlies genetic disorders characterized by severe developmental defects, yet the molecular mechanisms explaining its effects on cellular physiology remain elusive. Here we show, using a series of human cells with defined aneuploid karyotypes, that gain of a single chromosome increases genomic instability. Next-generation ...

|READ MORE|

sieber-journal_pone_0148608__500.100x0.jpeg

The aim of this study was to design, synthesize and validate a multifunctional antidepressant probe that is modified at two distinct positions. The purpose of these modifications was to allow covalent linkage of the probe to interaction partners, and decoration of probe-target complexes with fluorescent reporter molecules. The strategy for the design of such a ...

|READ MORE|

kuster-fech_acs_chembiol_500.100x0.jpeg

Many protein kinases are valid drug targets in oncology because they are key components of signal transduction pathways. The number of clinical kinase inhibitors is on the rise, but these molecules often exhibit polypharmacology, potentially eliciting desired and toxic effects. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of a compound’s target space is desirable for a ...

|READ MORE|

journalcambrigde_carell2016_500.100x0.jpg

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a highly versatile and efficient DNA repair process, which is responsible for the removal of a large number of structurally diverse DNA lesions. Its extreme broad substrate specificity ranges from DNA damages formed upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation to numerous bulky DNA adducts induced by mutagenic environmental chemicals ...

|READ MORE|

gaub-2016_jsb_ott.100x0.jpg

Single-molecule force spectroscopy sheds light onto the free energy landscapes governing protein folding and molecular recognition. Since only a single molecule or single molecular complex is probed at any given point in time, the technique is capable of identifying low-probability conformations within a large ensemble of possibilities. It furthermore allows ...

|READ MORE|

wilson-beckmann-_cosb_2016_final_500.100x0.jpeg

As the nascent polypeptide chain is being synthesized, it passes through a tunnel within the large ribosomal subunit. Interaction between the nascent polypeptide chain and the ribosomal tunnel can modulate the translation rate and induce translational stalling to regulate gene expression. In this article, we highlight recent structural insights into how the ...

|READ MORE|

becker_developmental_biolog_500.100x0.jpg

The Chromatin Accessibility Complex (CHRAC) consists of the ATPase ISWI, the large ACF1 subunit and a pair of small histone-like proteins, CHRAC-14/16. CHRAC is a prototypical nucleosome sliding factor that mobilizes nucleosomes to improve the regularity and integrity of the chromatin fiber. This may facilitate the formation of repressive chromatin. Expression of ...

|READ MORE|

reif-buchner-2016_jmb_buchner-goto-reif_vl-al-amyloidosis_500.100x0.jpeg

The aggregation of mostly antibody light chain variable (VL) domains into amyloid fibrils in various tissues is the main cause of death in systemic amyloid light chain amyloidosis. Point mutations within the domain are important to shift the VL into the fibrillar pathway, but why and how only some site-specific mutations achieve this still remains elusive. We ...

|READ MORE|

imhof_becker_cell2016_500.100x0.jpg

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are pivotal to cellular information processing, but how combinatorial PTM patterns (“motifs”) are set remains elusive. We develop a computational framework, which we provide as open source code, to investigate the design principles generating the combinatorial acetylation patterns on histone H4 in Drosophila melanogaster. ...

|READ MORE|

kuster-mol_cell_proteomics-2016-da_silva-1424-34_500.100x0.jpeg

The study of male infertility after spinal cord injury (SCI) has enhanced the understanding of seminal plasma (SP) as an important regulator of spermatozoa function. However, the most important factors leading to the diminished sperm motility and viability observed in semen of men with SCI remained unknown. Thus, to explore SP related molecular mechanisms ...

|READ MORE|

antes_groll_139_duell_acs_chembiol_2016_500.100x0.jpg

The epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP) gliotoxin mediates toxicity via its reactive thiol groups and thereby contributes to virulence of the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Self-intoxication of the mold is prevented either by reversible oxidation of reduced gliotoxin or by irreversible conversion to bis(methylthio)gliotoxin. The latter is produced by ...

|READ MORE|

plos2016_michalakis_biel_500.100x0.jpg

Purpose

Vision originates in rods and cones at the outer retina. Already at these early stages, diverse processing schemes shape and enhance image information to permit perception over a wide range of lighting conditions. In this work, we address the role of hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels 1 (HCN1) in rod photoreceptors for the ...

|READ MORE|

imhof-molecular_cellular_proteomics_2016_volker-albert_500.100x0.jpg

The structure of chromatin is critical for many aspects of cellular physiology and is considered to be the primary medium to store epigenetic information. It is defined by the histone molecules that constitute the nucleosome, the positioning of the nucleosomes along the DNA and the non-histone proteins that associate with it. These factors help
to establish and ...

|READ MORE|

schotta-e168_full_500.100x0.jpeg

Research efforts to establish therapeutic modalities for treating sickle cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassemia have been hindered by our incomplete understanding of the developmental regulation of human β-like globin gene expression. It has been demonstrated that increased embryonic globin (ε-globin) gene expression, similar to fetal globin (γ-globin), can ...

|READ MORE|

hopfner-poli_et_al-2016-gene_dev_500.100x0.jpg

Little is known about how cells ensure DNA replication in the face of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)-mediated transcription, especially under conditions of replicative stress. Here we present genetic and proteomic analyses from budding yeast that uncover links between the DNA replication checkpoint sensor Mec1–Ddc2 (ATR–ATRIP), the chromatin remodeling complex INO80C ...

|READ MORE|

plos2016_michalakis_biel_500.100x0.jpg

Point mutations in peripherin-2 (PRPH2) are associated with severe retinal degenerative disorders affecting rod and/or cone photoreceptors. Various disease-causing mutations have been identified, but the exact contribution of a given mutation to the clinical phenotype remains unclear. Exonic point mutations are usually assumed to alter single amino acids, thereby ...

|READ MORE|

skerra_peds16a_500.100x0.jpeg

Although prostate carcinoma (PCa) is by far the most commonly diagnosed neoplasia in men, corresponding diagnostic and therapeutic modalities have limited efficacy at present. Anticalins comprise a novel class of binding proteins based on a non-immunoglobulin scaffold that can be engineered to specifically address molecular targets of interest. Here we report the ...

|READ MORE|

molcell2016_imhoff_eick_500.100x0.jpg

The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) consists of heptad repeats with the consensus motif Y1-S2-P3-T4-S5-P6-S7. Dynamic phosphorylation of the CTD coordinates Pol II progression through the transcription cycle. Here, we use genetic and mass spectrometric approaches to directly detect and map phosphosites along the entire CTD. We confirm ...

|READ MORE|

wilson_nucl__acids_res_-2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) produced as part of the innate immune response of animals, insects and plants represent a vast, untapped resource for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. PrAMPs such as oncocin or bactenecin-7 (Bac7) interact with the bacterial ribosome to inhibit translation, but their supposed specificity as ...

|READ MORE|

becker_imhof_ladurner_embo_500.100x0.jpg

Old age is associated with a progressive decline of mitochondrial function and changes in nuclear chromatin. However, little is known about how metabolic activity and epigenetic modifications change as organisms reach their midlife. Here, we assessed how cellular metabolism and protein acetylation change during early aging in Drosophila melanogaster. Contrary to ...

|READ MORE|

ochsenfeld-j_chem_phys_144-031101_2016_500.100x0.jpeg

An atomic-orbital (AO) reformulation of the random-phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy is presented allowing to reduce the steep computational scaling to linear, so that large systems can be studied on simple desktop computers with fully numerically controlled accuracy. Our AO-RPA formulation introduces a contracted double-Laplace transform and employs ...

|READ MORE|

scientificreports2016_michalakis_500.100x0.jpg

Manipulating the function of neurons and circuits that translate electrical and chemical signals into behavior represents a major challenges in neuroscience. In addition to optogenetic methods using light-activatable channels, pharmacogenetic methods with ligand induced modulation of cell signaling and excitability have been developed. However, they are largely ...

|READ MORE|

sattler_carlon_etal_jacs2016_500.100x0.jpg

Integrated experimental approaches play an increasingly important role in structural biology, taking advantage of the complementary information provided by different techniques. In particular, the combination of NMR data with X-ray diffraction patterns may provide accurate and precise information about local conformations not available from average-resolution ...

|READ MORE|

sattler_feracci_etal_naturecommun2016_500.100x0.jpg

Sam68 and T-STAR are members of the STAR family of proteins that directly link signal transduction with post-transcriptional gene regulation. Sam68 controls the alternative splicing of many oncogenic proteins. T-STAR is a tissue-specific paralogue that regulates the alternative splicing of neuronal pre-mRNAs. STAR proteins differ from most splicing factors, in ...

|READ MORE|

sieber-lehmann_et_al-2016-chemistry_-_a_european_journal_500.100x0.jpeg

Biological selection makes natural products promising scaffolds for drug development and the ever growing number of newly identified, structurally diverse molecules helps to fill the gaps in chemical space. Elucidating the function of a small molecule, such as identifying its protein binding partners, its on- and off-targets, is becoming increasingly important. ...

|READ MORE|

baron-sieber-vomacka_et_al-2016-chemistry_-_a_european_journal_500.100x0.jpeg

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes severe infections with only few effective antibiotic therapies currently available. To approach this challenge, chemical entities with a novel and resistance-free mode of action are desperately needed. Here, we introduce a new hydroxyamide compound that effectively reduces the expression of devastating ...

|READ MORE|

sattler_vincendeau_etal_scirep2016_500.100x0.jpg

The IκB kinase (IKK) complex acts as the gatekeeper of canonical NF-κB signaling, thereby regulating immunity, inflammation and cancer. It consists of the catalytic subunits IKKα and IKKβ and the regulatory subunit NEMO/IKKγ. Here, we show that the ubiquitin binding domain (UBAN) in NEMO is essential for IKK/NF-κB activation in response to TNFα, but not IL-1β ...

|READ MORE|

hmg2016_biel_michalakis_500-.100x0.jpg

Most inherited blinding diseases are characterized by compromised retinal function and progressive degeneration of photoreceptors. However, the factors that affect the life span of photoreceptors in such degenerative retinal diseases are rather poorly understood. Here we explore the role of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 1 (HCN1) in ...

|READ MORE|

buchner_weinkauf_bba2015_500.100x0.jpg

Background
The two α-crystallins (αA- and αB-crystallin) are major components of our eye lenses. Their key function there is to preserve lens transparency which is a challenging task as the protein turnover in the lens is low necessitating the stability and longevity of the constituent proteins. α-Crystallins are members of the small heat shock protein family. ...

|READ MORE|

groll2016_proteindatabank.100x0.jpg

That is pretty cool: „The vast majority of the proteasome core structures added to the wwPDB archive in 2015 were from CIPSM investigator Michael Groll’s group.“

 

|READ MORE|

sattler-schlundt_etal_wire_rna2016_500.100x0.jpeg

Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression plays a central role in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses. This is exemplified by the protein Roquin, which has attracted great interest during the past decade owing to its ability to prevent autoimmunity. Roquin controls T‐cell activation and T helper cell differentiation by limiting the ...

|READ MORE|

CIPSM Movie
LMUexcellent
TU München
MPG
Helmholtz München
MPI of Neurobiology
MPI of Biochemistry